Ants acting as a fluid or a solid
A mass — or you might say, a mess — of fire ants can act like a fluid or a solid, depending on the situation. It’s the first time this duality has been observed in a group of living things.
These images illustrate the findings of the more technical research, done with rheometers to measure the precise viscosity and elasticity of balls of ants under stress. The researchers found that in different situations the ants behaved differently.
To flow, they moved around, rearranging themselves in the group, acting like a thick fluid. When the aggregation struggled to keep its shape, the ants clung to each other, acting like an elastic solid — rubber for example.
The research could have practical implications for self-assembling robots, which build themselves out of smaller bits and for self-healing materials.
In bridge construction, for instance, interest is great in materials that automatically repair cracks. The ants are experts at this kind of repair. When they turn themselves into a bridge for other ants, which they do often, they scramble to quickly repair breaks in any damage to the structure.